What distinguishes humans and other creatures is, reasonable. Human mind equipped to think. Thinking is a mental activity that produces knowledge. Basically, knowledge is divided into two; scientific knowledge and nonilmiah. Nonilmiah knowledge is knowledge gained from an experience and can not be tested.
The truth is, if anything can be proven to go through the stages of science, for example: the efficacy of an object that can summon spirits. While something that can be tested truth then included in scientific knowledge, for example: the benefits of oral rehydration salts as a cure for diarrhea, the benefits of milk to repair bone damage.
Knowledge is mental wealth of treasures that enrich human life, for knowledge is a source of answers to various questions on human life, the experience felt by the five senses, processed through reason.
Spontaneous nature of knowledge, subjective, and intuitive. Knowledge relating to truth and information about a reality. Humans are able to develop the knowledge, because humans have a language capable of communicating information and way of thinking, and to develop their knowledge.
Knowledge has characteristics specific about what (ontology), how (epistemology), and for what (axiology). These three characteristics are arranged so that the ontology of science related to the epistemology of science and epistemology of science will relate to the axiology of science and so on.
Scientific knowledge or knowledge as human knowledge is required to offer greater convenience in finding answers to questions, then needed a third runway. One problem faced by taking into account the aspects of epistemology is ontology and axiology what fits. For example: what is the cause of the frequent landslides?
We recognize knowledge as a science or science. Science (science) comes from the Latin Scientia means knowledge, is science understood as a disciplined process of inquiry, which has the aim to predict and understand the symptoms that occur, can be a social phenomenon or natural phenomena.
Scientific knowledge or science can be divided into:
1. Physical Science-Quantitative
It is empirical knowledge, gained through sensory experience and observation conducted memalui stages through analysis of data obtained from empirical phenomena. Included in this group is Physical-Quantitative geology, biology, anthropology, sociology, communications, economics, psychology and so forth.
2. Formal Science-Quantitative
Is knowledge gained by analyzing the reflection that is by looking for relationships between the concepts. Included in the group-Quantitative Formal is formal logic, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and so forth.
3. -Substantial metaphysical Sciences
It is the philosophy of science, the science that obtained by analyzing the reflection of the understanding, interpretation, speculation, critical assessment of rational and logical. By searching for the essence of the principle that underlies the existence of the entire real.